Saffron from planting to harvest

13 Jul

The history of saffron cultivation in Iran dates back to ancient times. Then it was taken from Iran to Greece and Rome. During the Parthian period, it was exported from Iran to Rome, and later during the Mongol period, it was exported to China, and China became one of the red gold customers in Iran. It is said that saffron became common in Qom during the Sassanid period. In the Islamic period, it was also taken to Arab countries, and the countries around the Mediterranean also became familiar with its cultivation method.
If we want to talk about the cultivation of this valuable plant in Iran, the first place that comes to mind is Khorasan. Khorasan province has always been a pioneer in the field of saffron cultivation in Iran. Cultivation of this plant is common in different cities of Khorasan Razavi province, including Zaveh, Torbat Heydariyeh, Torbat Jam, Taybad, Bakhzar, Gonabad, Neishabour, Bajestan, and this province has the first place in cultivation. In South Khorasan province, the cities of Ghainat, Ferdows, Bashravieh and Birjand can be mentioned. South Khorasan province has the second place in Iranian saffron cultivation after Khorasan Razavi province. In terms of quality, South Khorasan is the first, but in terms of quantity, it is the second region after Khorasan Razavi. After Khorasan province, we can mention the provinces of Kerman, Lorestan, Fars, etc., which have recently been activated in the field of red gold cultivation.

Out of about 330 tons of products that are produced every year in the world, about 290 tons are related to Khorasan. Among all the cities that are engaged in saffron cultivation in Khorasan Razavi and South Khorasan provinces, Ghaen has snatched the lead from other cities in terms of fame and is known as the saffron capital of Iran. The Chamber of Commerce of South Khorasan Province has mentioned the history of saffron cultivation in Ghaen for about 700 years. Gonabad saffron is currently ranked first in the world in terms of quality due to registration with the FAO. In recent years, many knowledge-based companies have been operating in the field of saffron in Khorasan province, and by participating in various countries and participating in global and export markets, they are trying to improve the export position of Khorasan saffron in the world.

What is the origin of saffron and where is it?
At first, Iran was the only exporter of red gold in the world, but in recent years, other countries have entered the trade of this plant. In the new era, Spain is considered as a competitor for Iran and is one of the exporters of saffron. The UAE has also become one of the world’s largest exporters of red gold without cultivating any saffron. In addition, many countries such as Afghanistan, India, etc. are active in the field of saffron exports.


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